Make an arduino-controlled robot pdf

 

    Michael Margolis. Make an Arduino-. Controlled Robot. D o w n lo a d fro m. W o w! e. B o o k. Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot by Michael Introduction to Robot Building. . Mounting Arduino and Connecting Wires to the Shield. Arduino Robotics. Copyright © by John-David Warren, Josh Adams, and Harald Molle. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or.

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    Make An Arduino-controlled Robot Pdf

    Arduino to build robots. That's exactly what explore programming the robot to do interesting things, and extending signals; these are useful for such things as controlling the. SERVO .. Arduino. See their site for datasheets (in PDF format). Abstract. The aim of the thesis was to create a Bluetooth controlled robot for JAMK University of by an Arduino microcontroller, which in turn is controlled by the mobile paimarlangkefgeekb.ga Arduino. Make: Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot - Building robots that sense and interact with their environment used to be tricky. Now, Arduino makes it easy.

    I showed you the parts I bought and what features I wanted to implement in my little remote controlled robot vehicle. Today I will introduce you to the programming side of my project. This is a pretty long article that is heavy in information that can be applied to most Arduino projects. By the end of it you will know the basics of programming sensors, motors and other devices connected to the Arduino, and will also have an understanding of how a wireless remote controller can communicate with the Arduino board over Bluetooth. I encourage you to get the parts I listed in the previous article and try these tests along with me. The Arduino Pins The Arduino board communicates with connected devices via its input and output pins, so I'll quickly go over what these pins are. Here is a diagram of a typical Arduino board. On the left side you have the USB port grey box and the power input jack black box. During testing I will be powering my Arduino with a USB cable, but the final robot will receive power from a battery box connected to the power input jack. On the top, from right to left there are 14 pins labeled 0 to These are the digital pins. These pins can be individually configured as inputs or outputs, meaning that digital data can be read or written from connected devices on these pins. Some of the digital pins have preassigned functions.

    Read More. Grab the upper part of the chassis and set it on top of the copper shafts connected to the lower part, and pull the wires attached to the H bridge through the hole in the center of the chassis. Set the six-AA battery holder on top of the chassis screw it down if you can , attach the 9V cell holder to the Arduino, and this bot is ready to rock!

    Well, almost ready to rock.

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    There we go. Now to give it a brain. Big thanks to Billwaa for his blog post on using the H-bridge for defining these functions. You should see a rapidly updating sequence of numbers. Hold your hand in front of the sensor and see if that number changes. Move your hand in and out, and you should get a measurement of how far away your hand is from the sensor.

    For quite cheap, too! Now each motor can be attached to the chassis by using two short bolts in the bottom of each metal bracket. A quick note: my kit was missing a number of fasteners, so I used electrical tape to secure the bridge. This picture should make it more clear: I found that I had to strip some of the housing off of the motor wires to get this to work.

    Now that you have the motors and the power supply all wired up, slide the wheels onto the motor drive shafts, and attach the four copper shafts in the locations show in the picture below each copper shaft needs one small bolt. This robot is starting to take shape! Now, set that part of the chassis aside and grab the other one which will sit on top. The next step is to attach the Arduino—again, I had to use electrical tape, but you should be able to better secure yours with some bolts and nuts.

    The next step requires the micro servo, the black crosspiece, the servo holder which consists of three black plastic pieces , and some small screws. Use one of the larger sharp screws in the kit to attach the black crosspiece to the micro servo: Then flip the servo upside down into the black plastic ring of the holder.

    Information in this chapter my also provide some ideas to help with the design of your own robot. The three black brackets to the left of the figure are not needed for any of the projects in this book. Locate the two bolts with the flat heads and put them aside for mounting the battery case.

    Also identify the two thicker M4 bolts that will be used to attach the caster. The remaining short bolts in this pack are identical. Chapter 3 23 42 Mechanical Assembly Figure WD hardware pack contents Motor Assembly Use two long bolts with lock washers and nuts, as shown in Figure , to attach each motor to the chassis lower plate.

    Tighten the nuts snugly but take care not to stress the plastic motor housing. Lock washers are used to prevent a nut from accidentally coming lose due to vibration. This is particularly important for attaching the motor and switch. These washers have a split ring or serrations that apply extra friction when tightened.

    If you find that things still come lose, don t overtighten the nuts; an effective solution is retighten the nut and apply a dab of nail polish to the point where the threads emerge from the nut. Figure shows the motors in place with the nut seen on the upper right ready to be tightened. Motors mounted on the chassis lower plate Chapter 3 25 44 Mechanical Assembly Figure Motor Assembly Assemble the Chassis Components Push the wheels onto the motor assembly shafts, aligning the slots in the wheels with the flat section of the motor shaft.

    Attach the caster with two M4 bolts and nuts. Figure and Figure show this. Motor Assembly Figure Wheels and caster mounted Chapter 3 27 46 Mechanical Assembly Attach the sensor bracket to the underside of the lower chassis plate, as seen in Figure and Figure This robot is sometimes built with the sensor plate mounted at the opposite end of the chassis furthest from the caster.

    You can build yours however you like, but the orientation shown here enables the servo mounted distance scanner to be attached in the front of the robot. Also, the sensor bracket in this location maximizes the distance between the wheels and the line sensors and this improves line following sensitivity. Figure shows the underside of the chassis after mounting the sensor bracket.

    Note that the sensor bracket is attached to the bottom of the chassis plate. Sensor bracket viewed with the robot right side up Figure Sensor bracket viewed with the robot upside down The battery pack is bolted to the bottom base plate with two countersunk flat headed Phillips bolts as shown in Figure and Figure You may want to delay this step until after the battery leads have been soldered to make it easier to position all the wires.

    Connect a 0. The switch is mounted using two M6 nuts and a lock washer. Then place the lock washer on the thread and push this through the opening in the rear plate and secure with the second M6 nut. Orient the switch so the toggle moves towards the jack, as shown in Figure and Figure Figure shows the view from beneath.

    Figure Switch and Jack Assembly 30 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 49 Mechanical Assembly Figure Top panel showing location of switch and DC jack Figure Top panel underside showing orientation of switch and jack The battery can be wired as shown in Figure and Figure The power switch will disconnect the battery when the robot is not in use. The DC jack is not used in this configuration other than as a junction point for the black ground wires.

    The switch is off when the toggle is closer to the DC jack as shown the toggle is a lever; when the exposed end is up as seen in the figure, the contact at the bottom is connected and the contact wired to the shield is open.

    Figure Basic Switch Wiring no trickle charger Chapter 3 31 50 Mechanical Assembly Figure Solder the battery wires to the switch You can build a simple trickle charger into the robot if you will be using rechargeable NiMH batteries. The charger can be built using the circuit shown in Figure and Figure See Trickle Charging page for information about using the charger. To prevent the Arduino pins from accidentally shorting to the chassis, apply insulating tape to the underside of the Arduino board.

    Gaffer tape works well but you can use non-conductive duct tape or heavy duty electrical tape. Attach the hairy side of the Velcro to the taped Arduino board, the hook side is fastened as shown in Figure Chapter 3 33 52 Mechanical Assembly Figure Velcro pad in position on the 2WD chassis. Inset shows Velcro attached to the Arduino board. Figure shows the mounted boards. The Velcro will hold the boards in position when the robot is moving about, but use one hand to steady the Arduino when you unplug the shield and take care not to use too much downward pressure that could push the Arduino pins through the tape when plugging in the shield.

    Use a 10mm spacer and M2. The hole near the DC jack at the lower left is not used. The spacer is required for a Leonardo board because there is insufficient space for an M3 bolt in the munting hole near the switch.

    Build your own Arduino-Controlled Robot!

    The Uno board has more room so you can use a another of the 10mm spacers and M3 hardware for mounting that board. Figure shows the location of the mounting points viewed from the underside of the panel. Left and right are from the robot s perspective the right wheel is the one closest to the switch.

    Figure shows the main electronics in place. Figure Motor and battery connections Chapter 3 37 56 Mounting the IR sensors Figure WD built and ready to mount sensors Mounting the IR sensors This section covers mounting of the infrared IR reflectance sensors for use in edge detecting or line following. This section explains how to mount these to the 2WD platform and connect them to Arduino. The first projects in this book should have the sensors mounted as shown in the section on edge detection.

    When you are ready to implement the line following application in Chapter 9, refer back to the section here on positioning the sensors 38 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 57 Mounting the IR sensors for line following. The stripboard mount described in Making a Line Sensor Mount page 17 simplifies the attachment and wiring of the sensors for line detection and this can also be used for edge detection, but bear in mind that the robot will perform the edge detection task best with the sensors further apart.

    If the sensors are close together, the robot can have difficulty determining the best angle to turn when an edge is encountered. Download from Wow! These should be spaced as widely as possible.

    Bluetooth Controlled Robot using Arduino

    The ideal location is with each sensor positioned in front of a wheel so an edge can be detected before a wheel would otherwise fall off a cliff. However, if your priority is simplicity of construction rather than accuracy of edge detection, you can use the same mount described in the next section covering line detection. The side with the sensor faces the ground and the header pins face upwards.

    Figure , Figure , Figure , and Figure show suggested mounting. Making a Line Sensor Mount page 17 describes how to build a stripboard mount for line sensing. However, you can also mount and attach each sensors as described in this section if you want to experiment with how varying the spacing of the sensors affects line following.

    The sensors can be attached using or M2 hardware. The component side faces down and the header pins face upwards. Figure Reflectance Sensor location for Line Following If you use the stripboard mount for line sensors covered in Chapter 2, Building the Electronics, the stripboard can be mounted above or below the sensor bracket, enabling you to experiment with sensor distance to the ground but use insulated washers to ensure that the tracks with sensor connections are not shorted to the bracket.

    Figure and Figure show how the stripboard can be mounted. Chapter 3 41 60 Mounting the IR sensors Figure Reflectance Sensor location for line following 42 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 61 Next Steps Figure Reflectance Sensor location for line following, alternate view See Figure for information on connecting the stripboard wires to the motor shield.

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    Next Steps Chapter 5, Tutorial: Getting Started with Arduino explains how to set up and use the development environment that will be used to upload code to the robot. If you are already an Arduino expert, you can skip to Chapter 6, Testing the Robot s Basic Functions, but first, see Installing Third-Party Libraries page 83 for advice on the libraries used with the code for this book.

    If you have the libraries installed and want run a simple test to verify that the motors are working correctly, you can run the sketch shown in Example Example 3 1. This will repeat until the power is switched off. Construction is straightforward you can follow the detailed steps or improvise if you want to customize your robot. If you prefer to build a four wheeled robot of your own design, you should read the sections on attaching control electronics and sensors if you want to use the code for the projects in the chapters to come.

    The 4WD robot chassis You will need a Phillips screwdriver, long-nose pliers, wire cutters, wire strippers, a soldering iron, and solder. If you don t have these on hand, you can find more information in Chapter 1, Introduction to Robot Building. Following the steps in order will ensure that you use the correct hardware in each assembly.

    You will need a soldering iron, wire cutters, and wire strippers to wire up the motor and power leads. Figure shows the contents of the bag containing the mounting hardware. The motor shaft goes through the large hole and there is a small locating stud on the motor that fits into the smaller hole. The lock washer the one with a raised edge goes between the nut and flat washer. Ensure the motor is flat against the plate and tighten the nuts firmly but take care not to use too much force or you will stress the plastic motor housing.

    Figure and Figure shows the assembly. Chapter 4 49 68 Mechanical Assembly Download from Wow! Motor assembly Figure Motors mounted onto side plates Lock washers are used to prevent a nut from accidentally coming loose due to vibration. This is critical for attaching the motor and switch. If you find that things still come loose, don t overtighten the nuts. Instead, retighten the nut and apply a dab of nail polish to the point where the threads emerge from the nut.

    Battery holder assembly Chapter 4 51 70 Mechanical Assembly Figure Battery holder assembly The DC power jack is bolted to the rear plate using the large M8 lock washer and nut as shown in Figure The switch is mounted using two nuts and a lock washer the locating washer is not used. Put one nut on the switch, leaving about enough thread for the nut to be attached to the other side. Place the lock washer on the thread and push this through the opening in the rear plate and secure with the second M6 nut.

    Orient the switch so the toggle moves from side to side, as shown in the figure. Figure and Figure show two views of the assembly. Switch and power jack assembly Figure Rear panel switch and power jack assembly viewed from the front Figure The other side of the panel showing the switch orientation and power jack Chapter 4 53 72 Mechanical Assembly Solder the Power and Motor Connections It is easier to solder the connections before everything is bolted together.

    The motor connections use the red and black wire provided in the kit. Cut four pieces, each three inches long. Connect and crimp the wires as shown in Figure , and then solder the wires and capacitors to the motor terminals as shown in Figure Figure Crimp the capacitor leads to the motor terminals Figure Crimp the wires Figure Solder the motor terminals 54 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 73 Mechanical Assembly Connecting the Battery Pack and Power Switch The battery can be wired as shown in Figure , but you cannot charge the battery in this configuration.

    The power switch will disconnect the battery when the robot is not in use. The switch is off when the toggle is closer to the DC jack as shown the toggle is a lever, when the exposed end is up as seen in the figure, the contact at the bottom is connected and the contact wired to the shield is open. Figure shows the completed circuit.

    Figure Basic switch wiring no trickle charger Figure Red wires soldered to switch Chapter 4 55 74 Mechanical Assembly Building the Optional Trickle Charger You can build a simple trickle charger into the robot if you will be using rechargeable NiMH batteries. See Trickle Charging page for information about using the charger.

    The circuit is wired as shown in Figure and Figure The battery is connected to both the robot and charger when it is switched on, enabling the Arduino to monitor and display the battery voltage.

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